19900505 NANOWORLD. The Power Engineering of the Future (popular)
SOVIET SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
"Soviet Land", #1, 1991, page 8. An account about nanoworld, a sensational discovery of Soviet physicists.
*** Fragment of "New Dawn", #1, 1991.
I was just a little kid when my father taught me how to ask all sort of questions. "First, you should ask yourself: ask others only if you don't know the answer". My classmates used to make fun of me, because I always showered teachers with questions. I graduated from high school on top of the class: everybody was quite surprised at the fact that a "dunce" like me had accomplished the seemingly impossible.
"When I was in my eighth grade my physics teacher Rufina Romanova asked me to hang up over the blackboard a teaching aid (I was the tallest guy in my class) showing the electromagnetic wave scale and the visible light and ratio wave range. "As distinct from ratio waves, light, which is regarded here as electromagnetic radiation, has the properties of particles. How come?" I asked myself as I climbed up to hang the diagram. I was unable to get an answer to me question back then. The textbooks were rather ambiguous about the whole thing, referring to this property of light as a "wave-particle". I was unable to solve the problem much later, when I was already a freshman at Moscow's power-engineering institute. Then it dawned on me that a photon might be nothing more than a self-focusing electromagnetic wave package. But this didn't make things easier. "Why do the waves focus at all?"; "At what point do the corpuscular properties begin to manifest themselves?"; "From what substance are light waves formed?"; "Do photons have a structure?"; "If not, then why?" These and other questions seemed mind-boggling... One fine day I happend to be present at a seminar conducted by Yuri Trusov, working with the Philosophy Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, asking him all these questions. Trusov showed me the way the classics tackled different problems.
"I used the analogy method to compare the structure of light and sonic waves: this enabled me to modify the mechanical ether model which had been suggested by Maxwell way back in 19th century. The size of ether elements was correlated with the particles that had been theoretically calculated by Max Planck at the turn of the century (these were called "Planckions" in his honour). The size of these particles is 25 orders of magnitude smaller then that of the atom: that's why, as distinct from atoms, the objects of the microworld, I suggest another name for ether elements, the 'nanoworld' (see photos).
My model showing the structure of the nanoworld helped find the answers to the questions that had amassed over the past ten years. These answers are illustrated with photos of models (see cover and text).
Beginning of the text from "Soviet Land":
It all began with question – "Are photons waves or particles?" While trying to provide an answer, Alexander Kushelev propounded the theory that photons are self-focusing electromagnetic waves.
But he was immediately faced with two other questions – "Waves of what?" and "How do they become focused?" Using the standard scientific analogy method for comparing the structures of light and sonic waves, the young genius constructed a model showing the structure of the nanoworld.
By the way, in a nanoworld, the linear dimensions of elements are 25 orders of magnitude smaller than the atom proper. The model has helped in providing answers for age-old questions which the physicists have been trying to answer and posed some new ones. Here is what Kushelev, who has been working together with Dmitry Kozhevnikov, has to say:
"My model showing the structure of the nanoworld helped in finding the answers to the questions that had accumulated over the past ten years". This answers are illustrated with the photos of models.
As far as the model of the nanoworld structure is concerned, the rings shown here symbolise the closed wave vortexes existing in the pikoworld (after the nanoworld, this is yet another step enabling one to penetrate deep inside matter). When the vortexes oscillate in relation to each other, this corresponds to the propagation of an electromagnetic wave. In that case, the photon is a self-focusing electromagnetic wave, i.e., a ray. If a ray is twisted into a ring, then we will get an electron. In case rings (electrons) gather round an atom, a system of ring-shaped polyhedral electronic atomic shells is formed. So far it is next to impossible to pinpoint the nanoworld's structural elements; however, TV and radio sets detect their fluctuations almost daily.
Models consisting of 1, 2, 8, 18 and 32 rings correspond to stable atom shells and, at the same time, to symmetrical polyhedrons. If such models are made of magnetic rings, then the force of magnetic gravitation will bind them together.
If we substitute cog-wheels for the rings, these will start spinning simultaneously; the direction of the spin is going to alternate accordingly.
"Atom models join together to form molecule, crystal and quasi-crystal models.
Rings and ring-shaped polyhedrons may form a fractal, in which the element reproduces its own shape but on an entirely different scale.
There are ring models, as well as standard rod models, which complement each other. By the way, the management of the Moscow-based Exhibition of Economic Achievements has awarded us a silver medal for furnishing additional information on inter-atom distances and directions, obtained by means of ring-shaped polyhedral models.
The eight starfish-shaped elements give the human body its shape. The same elements also constitute the building material of animal organs and even cellular structures, down to the shell of the simplest virus.
The last model, created while preparing this article, which has been named the DNA model, is in fact a spiral band nine atoms wide and one atom thick.
While conducting our research, we "accidentally" managed to solve a 2000-year-old task – that of angular trisection. "Who needs all this?" – an inquisitive reader might ask. Well, here's what the great Thomas Alva Edison said on this score: "What uses a child might have? He will grow up and become a man".
Still I will try and explain the possible practical implications of the nanoworld studies.
A rough estimate of energy density inside the spinning vortexes that constitute the structure of the nanoworld shows that one cubic metre of structure contains some 10114 joules of energy. At the same time, one cubic metre of nuclear fuel contains approximately 1018 joules of energy, i.e., 96 orders of magnitude less. The most important thing is that we can tap this fantastic energy and relay it back to the nanoworld's structure by means of a resonance process, similar to the electron, without having to resort to the rather risky chain reaction. In case resonance conditions are disrupted, the energy flow will be reduced and the possibility of an explosion will be totally ruled out. Surely, one can use this type of energy both for destructive and peaceful purposes. The nanoworld's autonomous energy source may be used to power a 'flying saucer', which would not have to refuel every now and then. Besides, the nanoworld may well bring about a revolution in power engineering by putting an end to the improvised 'metabolism' of today.
However, the construction of a relevant energy transformer may prove a formidable task, indeed, requiring the closest cooperation of all the world's scientists. You see, even in the most primitive type of transformers, the electron, (which, by the way, has lowest energy density), the intensity of the magnetic and electric fields surpasses that of artificially-induced fields by a million times. Another important thing is that the intensity of oscillations inside an electron reaches hundreds of billions of oscillations per second. So, we cannot use the present-day technological means at our disposal to tap the nanoworld's energy source; it will be the same as using a stone axe to split the atom. The most important thing is not destroy civilisation as we know it.
Dmitry Kozhevnikov, whom I met some twelve months after graduating from Moscow State University, is tackling the same kind of problems. At that time I was working as an engineer with the technical diagnostic lab at an R&D institute. Dmitry was then an under-graduate student, who also took a great deal of interest in the structure of the atomic nuclei. Quite soon he suggested that we make ring-shaped polyhedral internal electronic atom shells. These consisted of eight to 32 electrons, and quite soon it turned out that we had made some major discoveries. I even suggested naming some of these shells after my friend.
The 18-electron shell, for one, enabled us to discover a new geometrical figure – a polyhedron consisting of 18 facets or several regular polygons. I and Dmitry started working on a regular basis, and together we have made a few discoveries in the nanoworld sphere. For example, we have succeeded in deciphering the geometry of various types of chemical bonds. We have also found out why the ring-electrons change their diameters while approaching a nucleus or drifting away from it, etc.
We continued working together at the exhibition of young people's scitech creativity hosted by the Exhibition of Economic Achievements. At present quite a few of our models are displayed there, with each of us contributing an equal number. But, whereas my models mostly deal with the shape of elementary particles, a topic which lies in the realm of physics, a lot of Dmitry's models deal with physical and organic chemistry.
Dmitry has taken up structural modelling in the applied with the express purpose of linking it to practical results. This did not seem important to me at first, but in the long run my friend's work helped in creating models of organic molecules, which in its turn enabled us to create a new DNA model of the matrix type.
As I have already said, this model resembles a spiral band one atom thick and nine atoms wide, with the south and north electron fields arranged just like black and white squares on a chess-board. The DNA band proper owes its peculiar shape to the fact that the phosphorus atoms, spread along the rim of the band, have a greater diameter then the carbon atoms. This is our latest achievement, by the way.